Researchers from Hitachi, Japan, announced in August 2017 that their solid-state battery technology has been developed. Hitachi has already sent samples of solid-state batteries to potential customers in the aerospace and automotive industries, the company said. In addition, Hitachi is working with an undisclosed Japanese battery manufacturer to refine some of the details and put solid-state batteries on the market by 2020.
In June 2017, Toyota filed a patent application for a solid-state battery, numbered 20170179545, to the United States. The study of the sub-chemical consultation shows that the solid-state battery is composed of the sulfide solid electrolyte and the electrode active material, wherein the composition of the electrolyte material includes four kinds of elements, such as lithium, phosphorus, sulfur and iodine, and the cathode material contains a phosphate ester. The weight ratio of the phosphate ester in the cathode material varies 1~30%. The thermal stability of the solid-state lithium battery was improved by adding phosphoric ester to the cathode material. In July, Toyota said it planned to start selling electric cars powered by solid-state batteries in 2022.
Solid-State lithium batteries are batteries that use solid-state electrolytes. In construction, solid-state lithium batteries are simpler than traditional lithium-ion batteries. The solid electrolyte, in addition to conducting lithium ions, also acts as a diaphragm. Therefore, in the solid-state lithium battery, electrolyte, diaphragm and binder PVDF and so on do not need to use. Working principle, solid-state lithium battery and lithium ion battery are connected, when charging, the lithium ion in the positive electrode is removed from the lattice of the active material, and through the solid electrolyte to the negative electrode, the electrons are migrated to the negative electrode through the external circuit, which are combined into lithium atoms, alloyed or embedded in the anode material. The discharge process is in contrast to the charging process, when electrons are driven through an external circuit to drive an electronic device.
At present, many countries in the world have developed a high energy density lithium battery research and development goals. As proposed by the Government of Japan, the energy density of power battery batteries will reach 500wh/kg in the 2020 250wh/kg,2030 years; The United States Advanced Battery Federation (USABC) proposed to increase the energy density of 2020 batteries from the original 220wh/kg to 350wh/kg; China State Council "Made in China 2025" clearly proposed that by 2020 China's power battery monomer than the energy to reach the 300wh/kg,2025 year to reach the 400wh/kg,2030 year 500wh/kg.
Public data show that the current use of ternary cathode materials and graphite anode materials liquid power lithium energy density limit of 280wh/kg or so, and the introduction of silica matrix composites instead of pure graphite as a negative material, power lithium energy density is expected to do more than 300wh/kg, the upper limit of about 350WH/KG
The 2020-year target of power battery monomer energy, as proposed by the State, can be achieved through existing lithium-ion battery technology. To achieve higher energy density targets, solid-state lithium batteries will be an important development direction. At present, solid-state lithium batteries are difficult to become mainstream in the 2022 because of high interfacial impedance between solid electrolyte and positive and negative electrode, low conductivity of solid electrolyte and high cost of material preparation. However, in view of the market for lithium battery energy density and safety requirements of the continuous improvement of the development of solid lithium battery is worth expecting.
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